Documenting the Civil Rights Movement in Baltimore

By Eli Pousson, Director of Preservation and Outreach, Baltimore Heritage

Over the past year, Baltimore Heritage, the Maryland Historical Trust and the Baltimore National Heritage Area have been hard at work researching and documenting the history of Baltimore’s African American Civil Rights movement. Our long-term goal is to identify and designate historic places associated with the Civil Rights movement in and around Baltimore City. From the start, we recognized this project as a unique opportunity to get Baltimore residents interested and involved in the search for the city’s Civil Rights history.

In the spring, we put together a comprehensive bibliography with journal articles, books, government reports, and more—using Zotero to publish the bibliography online as a resource for local historians and educators. In the fall, we launched our project website featuring an interactive timeline of Civil Rights history and an inventory map showing all of the sites and buildings we have found so far. If you think we missed any important events or places, please get in touch or you can comment directly on the timeline or inventory as Google Spreadsheets.

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Rally to Save Baltimore’s Civil Rights Heritage, November 2015. Photo by Eli Pousson.

In addition to these online resources, we’ve organized several tours and programs for Baltimore residents and local students. In November we led a bike tour with stops at the segregated Pool No. 2 in Druid Hill Park, the home of activists Juanita Jackson and Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. on Druid Hill Avenue, and the Prince Hall Masonic Lodge on Eutaw Place where Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke in 1964. We also led a tour for a group of students from Digital Harbor High School with stops at the Ebenezer AME Church and Leadenhall Baptist—two of the oldest African American churches in Baltimore with long histories of fighting for justice.

Jackson Mitchell House

Juanita Jackson and Clarence Mitchell House on Druid Hill Avenue. Photo by Eli Pousson.

Our research has uncovered powerful stories from fight against residential housing segregation in the 1910s, the campaign desegregate downtown lunch counters in the 1950s, and activism around economic empowerment and urban renewal in the 1970s. But we know there are many more stories and places that we still need to learn more about. We look forward to continuing our research and working with community residents (and veteran activists) to make sure we preserve these important places from Maryland’s Civil Rights history.

If you are interested in learning more Baltimore’s Civil Rights Heritage: Looking for Landmarks from the Movement, please sign up for updates through the Baltimore Heritage website or get in touch with Eli Pousson, Director of Preservation and Outreach at pousson@baltimoreheritage.org.

‘Mount Gilboa’ of Oella

By Commissioner Steven X. Lee, Maryland Commission on African American History & Culture

Journeying west along the Old National Road (Frederick Road) from Baltimore City to Frederick, Maryland, the historic mill town of Oella midway en route can easily be passed unnoticed.  It lies at the western border of Baltimore County, where the Old National Road meets the Patapsco River.  It is the synergy of river and road that imparts a big history to this small-town America region.

 

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“Oella”, Baltimore County, at the Ellicott City / Howard County border. This town sign is at the terminal point of Oella Avenue, where it meets Frederick (the Old National) Road, and the Patapsco River. [2014 / Courtesy of SXLee]

Research for a publication-in-progress, “Patapsco River Communities Historic Oella & Ellicott City ”, has revealed many compelling and diverse his- and her-stories of the American experience from this picturesque landscape.  Among them are some from a small vintage African American neighborhood in Oella that is vanishing with the tides of time and development.  Oella’s African American neighborhood, often called “Mount Gilboa” in its heyday, has been a part of the town since its earliest beginnings.   It was in the 1700s that free blacks first acquired land in this area, evolving a close-knit neighborhood that ran for about a quarter-mile along the eastern sector of Oella Avenue, from Westchester Avenue to Old Frederick Road.

Oella’s most famous early American resident, Mr. Benjamin Bannaky, was a member of one of the founding families of this African American community.  Better known as Benjamin Banneker — scientist, clockmaker, author, abolitionist, farmer, and a surveyor of the Federal Territory — he, like his contemporaries Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, was one of American society’s earliest renaissance men and innovators.  And but for the few months in 1791 that he was away surveying the land for the nation’s capital, he spent his entire life on the family farmstead in Oella.

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300 Oella Avenue, main entrance to the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park of Baltimore County. This site was originally the homestead of the Bannaky family, now a public park of cultural and natural history. [2010 / Courtesy of SXLee]

It was Benjamin’s parents, Robert and Mary Bannaky, who had purchased the land in 1737.   Their 100-acre property flanked Oella Avenue and crossed the Old National Road, including hilltop, hillside and wetlands terrain, with natural springs, access to the Coopers Branch stream, and the Patapsco River.   The varied landscape enabled the Bannakys to have a viable and sustainable farm, from which they provided fresh produce, tobacco, honey, herbs, candles and other products to the burgeoning town.  From the number of oyster shells found during the Maryland Historical Trust’s 1980s archaeological digs around the Bannaky cabin foundations, it is evident that the fruits of the river were harvested as well.

The African American neighborhood ends at the highest point in the landscape of this segment of Oella Avenue, at Westchester Avenue.  Here it culminates with Oella’s oldest institution – Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church.   It too shares an early American genesis.  In colonial times, its property was part of the large Williams estate.  When Mary Williams died in 1786, in her will* she freed her slaves and left them this parcel of land on which to build their house of worship.   Although the original wooden structure burned down in the 19th century, the church and congregation of Mount Gilboa A.M.E. have continued at this site since its inception.

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Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church, on Westchester Avenue at Oella Avenue, is Historic Oella’s oldest institution. [2015 / Maryland Historical Trust.]

The church came to be a symbol and namesake for the African American neighborhood that developed eastward down Oella Avenue.  During the nation’s Bicentennial, the state monument of an obelisk in honor of Benjamin Banneker was here erected on the church grounds  (the 1985 archaeological discovery of Banneker’s actual homestead further down Oella Avenue had not yet been made).   Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church continues as an enduring symbol among Oella’s local legacies.

What was life like for the African American neighbors of “Mount Gilboa” in Oella?  That can best be found in the telling of those who lived it.  And Baltimore County historian Louis S. Diggs must be credited for his initiative to document many of those stories in the oral tradition.  One of the Diggs interviews conducted in the late 1990s is with Mrs. Lydia Harris Cole, a native and resident of Oella Avenue in the twentieth century.

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Mrs. Lydia Harris Cole at her home in ‘Mount Gilboa’, Oella. [Circa 1990 / Courtesy of Louis Diggs]

…My name is Lydia Harris, I was born in Oella, in July of 1940.  The home I’m in now was always in the family. My aunt, Addie Hall, came from Washington and bought this home that I’m living in now in 1962; and she passed away in 1986.  I’m a descendant of the Halls.  My grandmother and grand-father were Jeanette and Caleb Hall. They lived next door.

… This is the African American part of Oella, from the Country Corner Store, on down to Old Frederick Road, mostly African Americans lived here, except [for the white families of] the Treuths, the Boones, and the Colfields.  Some of the African Americans [families] are the Rideouts, the Halls, the Matthews, and the Hendersons.

…We weren’t allowed in the section of Oella down the road where the white people mostly lived. The line was the Country Corner Store.  But, regardless, we all got along pretty well.

…The Country Corner Store was the one place we all went to daily.  When I was a kid, a Mr. Johnson owned the store, and later, Mr. Jay Patel purchased it. Both owners were very good to the Colored people.

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The Country Corner Store in mid 20th century, at the corner of Oella Avenue and Westchester Avenue. In the background on the left can be seen the side of Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church. [Courtesy of Jay Patel]

We couldn’t go to the Westchester School [in Oella] because that was for the White kids.  …We used to have to catch the streetcar right behind my house to go to school, which was Banneker School in Catonsville.  We went from the first to the twelfth grade there.

…African American kids at Banneker School came from all over the area:  Woodstock, Granite, Relay, Halethorpe, Arbutus, and Randallstown.

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Kids at play in front of the Benjamin Banneker School, in the historic African American community of Winters Lane in Catonsville. This school provided education for the African American children of Catonsville and its neighboring Oella, as well as of the other communities of west Baltimore County in the era of segregation. [Circa 1941 / Courtesy of Odessa White and Louis Diggs]

Some of the older Blacks in the community attended school in Mount Gilboa AME Church, in the bottom of the church.  My mother, uncles, etc., attended that school.

The neighborhood is not like it used to be in the old days. I remember the big holidays, like the fourth of July when everyone had cookouts and activities.  We’d just go from house to house having a great time.  People here don’t do that now.

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Front row – left to right: Malfalda Pollitt, Consuella White, and one of the Hoke girls. Rear – left to right: two of the Hoke children, and Sylvia Pollitt. [Circa 1940s / Courtesy of Odessa White and Louis Diggs]

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Children of the Hoke and Pollitt families at the home of George and Ethel White at 321 Oella Avenue. The white Hoke family, and the black Pollitt and White families were all neighbors in ‘Mount Gilboa’. [Circa 1940s / Courtesy of Odessa White and Louis Diggs]

Growing up in Oella was nice.  We played mostly among ourselves.  I would play with the Edmond girls, and my brother would play with the guys. We couldn’t go out to play until after the work was done, and back in those days, there was no electricity, no running water, so we had a lot of chores to do.  We had to do all of our washing on the washboard, carry the water three and four times and dump it, and in the wintertime, had to hang the clothes up on the line in the snow.  There was a well right on the property, and we would pump the water and carry it in the house, put it on the stove to heat it, and then put it in the tub.  Of course we had an outhouse in the backyard.  Plumbing and sewage didn’t come around in our area until 1956. We had all the usual animals on our property, chickens, pigs, dogs and cats.  When we got sick, we had some of the old country curing by my grandmother.

There used to be as many as sixteen or seventeen African American families here; I recall that this community was called Mount Gilboa years ago.  I have some letters that my uncle wrote when he was in the war that he wrote back to my grandmother.  On the front of the envelope was her address in Mount Gilboa, Maryland.

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Neighbor Dorothy Dorsey walking home from the Country Corner Store, along Oella Avenue. The store is a couple blocks behind her (out of frame) on the right. The land of Benjamin Banneker is just in front of her (out of frame) on the left. [Circa 1941 / Courtesy of Odessa White and Louis Diggs]

The enclave that was once the “Mount Gilboa” neighborhood now fades to memories.  Most of its elders have passed, and younger generations moved on to other locales.  Old houses have been replaced or made anew, as Oella has been redeveloped and rediscovered for the unique charm it encompasses.  But the icons of the community remain.  Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church, the Country Corner Store, the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park & Museum are all within a stroll, and like many other features of Oella, make for a surprisingly intriguing day trip into Maryland Americana.

A museologist, Commissioner Lee also served as the Founding Director for the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park & Museum.

 

* –  African American Civil War Memorial Freedom Foundation Collection

The Common Good: Blacks in Secret Societies in Calvert County, Maryland

By Michael Gayhart Kent, Maryland Commission on African American History and Culture

Volumes have been written about the sacrifices and victories of the many men and women who have fought for civil rights.   While the focus is often on individual leaders and national events, many of our black ancestors worked quietly in the shadows to create a better future for their descendents. These unsung heroes, working together within the framework of benevolent, masonic, and fraternal societies, made lasting contributions to their local communities, setting the groundwork for – and engaging in – the struggle for civil rights.  This article examines the presence, impact, and succession of several such African American societies in Calvert County, Maryland, , which is also the subject of an exhibit opening at the Prince Frederick Library on February 6, 2016.

Capture_galilean fishermen_Afro American

The Baltimore Afro-American celebrated the Galilean Fishermen in an article on July 1, 1974, noting a current membership of 500.

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