Interpretation at Sotterley Plantation: The Road to Relevance

By Jeanne Pirtle, Education Director, Historic Sotterley, Inc.

Historic Sotterley Plantation has a long history, to be sure. It has also been open to the public as a museum since 1960.  Let’s see, what was happening in the 1960’s? Schools were still segregated. Jim Crow was still alive.  And in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, Sotterley’s last private owner had decided to open Sotterley and create a non-profit so that it could be preserved.  As with most house museums at that time, the early tours focused on the furnishings and lives of the owners with a little legend, lore and myth mixed in.  After the owner’s death in 1993, ownership went to the Sotterley Foundation, which is now Historic Sotterley, Inc.

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In the early 1970’s, a visitor and her father came to the museum.  They paid their two dollars for a tour.  They noticed a slave cabin on the property, but on their tour of the house nothing was mentioned about the slave cabin.  The visitor was Agnes Kane Callum.

Agnes was born in Baltimore in 1925.  She had raised her family while working for the post office. After retirement she earned two degrees from Morgan State University.  She continued to research her family and found a connection to Sotterley.  Her ancestors, Hillary and Elsa Cane, were enslaved there in the 19th century. Agnes made it her passion and mission to have the story of her family told in Sotterley’s narrative. She kept visiting Sotterley with research in hand, bringing large groups of her family and friends with her.  Eventually, Agnes became a trustee on Sotterley’s board and developed an education program for middle school students that is still taught today, Slavery to Freedom.

In 1996, Sotterley was on the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s “11 Most Endangered” list.  Agnes joined forces with owner descendants to save Sotterley. It was rescued and grant money was used to help restore the house and cabin. For some years, tours focused on this restoration with a few stories of the enslaved, but still it was not a complete and inclusive narrative.

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Sotterley’s slave cabin

In 2010, with grant funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Sotterley began work on a re-interpretation and developed research-based tours that moved past the romanticism to reveal a realistic view of the plantation’s story seen through different perspectives.  An exhibit in the slave cabin, as well as other projects focused on changing perspectives in interpretation at Sotterley, were assisted by grants from the Maryland Heritage Areas Authority.  In 2012, Sotterley was recognized as a port site through the Middle Passage Ceremonies and Port Markers Project (MPCPMP).  In 2014, Land, Lives and Labor became Historic Sotterley Plantation’s first permanent exhibit created to focus on the people who lived and labored for the owners from 1699 into the mid 20th century.  It is housed in the Corn Crib, which was restored using funding from the African American Heritage Preservation Program, administered by MHT and the Maryland Commission on African American History and Culture.

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“Land, Lives, and Labor” exhibit, housed in the Corn Crib

Agnes Kane Callum passed away in 2015.  Sotterley will remember her life and legacy as we dedicate the new Slave Cabin exhibit to her memory this April.  This exhibit will focus on the lives of her ancestors, Hillary and Alice Elsa Cane and their children and allow visitors to experience a window into their lives.

At Historic Sotterley, we continue to tell the stories of all who lived and worked here, as we remember our roots and the people who helped us along the way, not just in February, but every day. We welcome every visitor who anticipates a new discovery and finds relevance in our collective past.

Preserving Our Legacy: The Archives and Artifacts Ministry of Union Baptist Church

By Evelyn J. Chatmon and Dr. Dorothy Coleman, Co-Chairs, Archives & Artifacts Ministry, Union Baptist Church, Baltimore MD

A casual conversation between Lucretia Billups, Co-Chair Emeritus, and Evelyn Chatmon outside of church one Sunday morning, about a beautiful writing created by the then pastor, Rev. Vernon N. Dobson, blossomed into an acknowledgement of how many church documents were being accumulated in our homes.  That conversation led to our wondering if there was any unified effort to save the history of our church, which was already in the beginning stages of preparing to celebrate its 150th Anniversary.  We learned that there had never been a concerted effort to save the church’s history and were able to convince Rev. Dobson that her history needed to be preserved.  Thus was created the Archives and Artifacts Ministry of Union Baptist Church.  That was 20 years ago.  A well-known Baltimore archivist, by the name of Wayne Wiggins, gave us invaluable guidance, explaining at the outset of our efforts that what we were doing, though unusual, was of great importance.  The effort has been well worth it. union-baptist-1928-membership-photo

Following are just a few of the reasons why Union Baptist Church is historically significant.  Located at 1219 Druid Hill Avenue, Union was organized on May 10, 1852.  In 2010, she was placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior.  Moving from its North Street location, the new edifice, dedicated in 1905, became the first church in Baltimore City to be built by Negroes for Negroes.  Ten pastors have served her over 165 years of existence.  The congregation, presently led by Rev. Dr. Alvin C. Hathaway, Sr., has had the distinction of also being led by two nationally recognized pastors.   Rev. Dr. Harvey Johnson was her fourth pastor from 1872-1923 and Rev. Vernon N. Dobson her ninth from 1967-2007. During the tenure of Dr. Johnson, the congregation grew to 3,000 members.  Dr. Johnson won the first case in the United States striking down the identification of Negroes as cargo in interstate commerce in the case of “Stewart v s The Sue”.  Among other numerous civil rights accomplishments, Dr. Johnson led the litigation to get colored teachers pay equal to that of whites and to allow colored lawyers to practice in the state of Maryland. The tenure of Rev. Dobson saw a continuation of the work of the civil rights movement. Rev. Dobson began working with Dr. Martin Luther King and Union became one of the major sponsors of the March on Washington in the Poor People’s Campaign.  Union also was a staging ground for many civil rights meetings; a major achievement was the integration of Gwynn Oak Amusement Park.  Under Dobson’s leadership, a pilot Head Start program was tested in 1968, a full time program was established two years later, and a child care center was built to house the program in 1995 at a cost of $3.2 million. Union was a co-founder of BUILD in the 1970s, under Rev. Dobson’ s leadership.

Over these twenty years, we have been fortunate to collect from many nooks and crannies in the church, from church safes, from file cabinets and from the homes of many members, documents of great worth.  Examples of what we have collected include original deeds, celebratory programs, minutes of meetings, photographs, numerous artifacts, and the ledgers of the giving of members, which include the monetary gifts of Dr. Johnson as well as documentation of his salary.  Probably most valuable are the hundreds of funeral programs of our members, even dating back to that of Dr. Francis Wood, the first black superintendent of Baltimore City Public Schools in the late 1920s.  In addition, we have a copy of the program for the 50th Anniversary Celebration given for Rev. Dr. Harvey Johnson.

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Our current Pastor, Rev. Dr. Alvin C. Hathaway, Sr., whose dissertation was on the work of Dr. Harvey Johnson, and who is also a member of the archives ministry, is keenly aware of the importance of maintaining Union’s history.  It was at his urging that we sought an African American Heritage Preservation Program (AAHPP) grant from the Maryland Commission on African American History and Culture and the Maryland Historical Trust to create an environment to house and safeguard our collection.  Thanks to the grant, we have a separate, climate-controlled space that was dedicated this past October.

The collection will be of great value to those who want to find information about their ancestors or to note the contributions of those in Union’s leadership who came before.  The ministry has mounted displays of documents and artifacts of historical significance. Various members of the public have used our documents to do research for books and papers.  We have received requests for access to our new archives space to learn about what we are doing and why we are doing it.  We encourage other churches to be inspired by our work, and to find similar ways to preserve their legacies – not only buildings, but also photographs, papers, and records – for future generations.

 

‘Mount Gilboa’ of Oella

By Commissioner Steven X. Lee, Maryland Commission on African American History & Culture

Journeying west along the Old National Road (Frederick Road) from Baltimore City to Frederick, Maryland, the historic mill town of Oella midway en route can easily be passed unnoticed.  It lies at the western border of Baltimore County, where the Old National Road meets the Patapsco River.  It is the synergy of river and road that imparts a big history to this small-town America region.

 

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“Oella”, Baltimore County, at the Ellicott City / Howard County border. This town sign is at the terminal point of Oella Avenue, where it meets Frederick (the Old National) Road, and the Patapsco River. [2014 / Courtesy of SXLee]

Research for a publication-in-progress, “Patapsco River Communities Historic Oella & Ellicott City ”, has revealed many compelling and diverse his- and her-stories of the American experience from this picturesque landscape.  Among them are some from a small vintage African American neighborhood in Oella that is vanishing with the tides of time and development.  Oella’s African American neighborhood, often called “Mount Gilboa” in its heyday, has been a part of the town since its earliest beginnings.   It was in the 1700s that free blacks first acquired land in this area, evolving a close-knit neighborhood that ran for about a quarter-mile along the eastern sector of Oella Avenue, from Westchester Avenue to Old Frederick Road.

Oella’s most famous early American resident, Mr. Benjamin Bannaky, was a member of one of the founding families of this African American community.  Better known as Benjamin Banneker — scientist, clockmaker, author, abolitionist, farmer, and a surveyor of the Federal Territory — he, like his contemporaries Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, was one of American society’s earliest renaissance men and innovators.  And but for the few months in 1791 that he was away surveying the land for the nation’s capital, he spent his entire life on the family farmstead in Oella.

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300 Oella Avenue, main entrance to the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park of Baltimore County. This site was originally the homestead of the Bannaky family, now a public park of cultural and natural history. [2010 / Courtesy of SXLee]

It was Benjamin’s parents, Robert and Mary Bannaky, who had purchased the land in 1737.   Their 100-acre property flanked Oella Avenue and crossed the Old National Road, including hilltop, hillside and wetlands terrain, with natural springs, access to the Coopers Branch stream, and the Patapsco River.   The varied landscape enabled the Bannakys to have a viable and sustainable farm, from which they provided fresh produce, tobacco, honey, herbs, candles and other products to the burgeoning town.  From the number of oyster shells found during the Maryland Historical Trust’s 1980s archaeological digs around the Bannaky cabin foundations, it is evident that the fruits of the river were harvested as well.

The African American neighborhood ends at the highest point in the landscape of this segment of Oella Avenue, at Westchester Avenue.  Here it culminates with Oella’s oldest institution – Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church.   It too shares an early American genesis.  In colonial times, its property was part of the large Williams estate.  When Mary Williams died in 1786, in her will* she freed her slaves and left them this parcel of land on which to build their house of worship.   Although the original wooden structure burned down in the 19th century, the church and congregation of Mount Gilboa A.M.E. have continued at this site since its inception.

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Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church, on Westchester Avenue at Oella Avenue, is Historic Oella’s oldest institution. [2015 / Maryland Historical Trust.]

The church came to be a symbol and namesake for the African American neighborhood that developed eastward down Oella Avenue.  During the nation’s Bicentennial, the state monument of an obelisk in honor of Benjamin Banneker was here erected on the church grounds  (the 1985 archaeological discovery of Banneker’s actual homestead further down Oella Avenue had not yet been made).   Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church continues as an enduring symbol among Oella’s local legacies.

What was life like for the African American neighbors of “Mount Gilboa” in Oella?  That can best be found in the telling of those who lived it.  And Baltimore County historian Louis S. Diggs must be credited for his initiative to document many of those stories in the oral tradition.  One of the Diggs interviews conducted in the late 1990s is with Mrs. Lydia Harris Cole, a native and resident of Oella Avenue in the twentieth century.

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Mrs. Lydia Harris Cole at her home in ‘Mount Gilboa’, Oella. [Circa 1990 / Courtesy of Louis Diggs]

…My name is Lydia Harris, I was born in Oella, in July of 1940.  The home I’m in now was always in the family. My aunt, Addie Hall, came from Washington and bought this home that I’m living in now in 1962; and she passed away in 1986.  I’m a descendant of the Halls.  My grandmother and grand-father were Jeanette and Caleb Hall. They lived next door.

… This is the African American part of Oella, from the Country Corner Store, on down to Old Frederick Road, mostly African Americans lived here, except [for the white families of] the Treuths, the Boones, and the Colfields.  Some of the African Americans [families] are the Rideouts, the Halls, the Matthews, and the Hendersons.

…We weren’t allowed in the section of Oella down the road where the white people mostly lived. The line was the Country Corner Store.  But, regardless, we all got along pretty well.

…The Country Corner Store was the one place we all went to daily.  When I was a kid, a Mr. Johnson owned the store, and later, Mr. Jay Patel purchased it. Both owners were very good to the Colored people.

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The Country Corner Store in mid 20th century, at the corner of Oella Avenue and Westchester Avenue. In the background on the left can be seen the side of Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church. [Courtesy of Jay Patel]

We couldn’t go to the Westchester School [in Oella] because that was for the White kids.  …We used to have to catch the streetcar right behind my house to go to school, which was Banneker School in Catonsville.  We went from the first to the twelfth grade there.

…African American kids at Banneker School came from all over the area:  Woodstock, Granite, Relay, Halethorpe, Arbutus, and Randallstown.

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Kids at play in front of the Benjamin Banneker School, in the historic African American community of Winters Lane in Catonsville. This school provided education for the African American children of Catonsville and its neighboring Oella, as well as of the other communities of west Baltimore County in the era of segregation. [Circa 1941 / Courtesy of Odessa White and Louis Diggs]

Some of the older Blacks in the community attended school in Mount Gilboa AME Church, in the bottom of the church.  My mother, uncles, etc., attended that school.

The neighborhood is not like it used to be in the old days. I remember the big holidays, like the fourth of July when everyone had cookouts and activities.  We’d just go from house to house having a great time.  People here don’t do that now.

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Front row – left to right: Malfalda Pollitt, Consuella White, and one of the Hoke girls. Rear – left to right: two of the Hoke children, and Sylvia Pollitt. [Circa 1940s / Courtesy of Odessa White and Louis Diggs]

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Children of the Hoke and Pollitt families at the home of George and Ethel White at 321 Oella Avenue. The white Hoke family, and the black Pollitt and White families were all neighbors in ‘Mount Gilboa’. [Circa 1940s / Courtesy of Odessa White and Louis Diggs]

Growing up in Oella was nice.  We played mostly among ourselves.  I would play with the Edmond girls, and my brother would play with the guys. We couldn’t go out to play until after the work was done, and back in those days, there was no electricity, no running water, so we had a lot of chores to do.  We had to do all of our washing on the washboard, carry the water three and four times and dump it, and in the wintertime, had to hang the clothes up on the line in the snow.  There was a well right on the property, and we would pump the water and carry it in the house, put it on the stove to heat it, and then put it in the tub.  Of course we had an outhouse in the backyard.  Plumbing and sewage didn’t come around in our area until 1956. We had all the usual animals on our property, chickens, pigs, dogs and cats.  When we got sick, we had some of the old country curing by my grandmother.

There used to be as many as sixteen or seventeen African American families here; I recall that this community was called Mount Gilboa years ago.  I have some letters that my uncle wrote when he was in the war that he wrote back to my grandmother.  On the front of the envelope was her address in Mount Gilboa, Maryland.

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Neighbor Dorothy Dorsey walking home from the Country Corner Store, along Oella Avenue. The store is a couple blocks behind her (out of frame) on the right. The land of Benjamin Banneker is just in front of her (out of frame) on the left. [Circa 1941 / Courtesy of Odessa White and Louis Diggs]

The enclave that was once the “Mount Gilboa” neighborhood now fades to memories.  Most of its elders have passed, and younger generations moved on to other locales.  Old houses have been replaced or made anew, as Oella has been redeveloped and rediscovered for the unique charm it encompasses.  But the icons of the community remain.  Mount Gilboa A.M.E. Church, the Country Corner Store, the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park & Museum are all within a stroll, and like many other features of Oella, make for a surprisingly intriguing day trip into Maryland Americana.

A museologist, Commissioner Lee also served as the Founding Director for the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park & Museum.

 

* –  African American Civil War Memorial Freedom Foundation Collection

The Common Good: Blacks in Secret Societies in Calvert County, Maryland

By Michael Gayhart Kent, Maryland Commission on African American History and Culture

Volumes have been written about the sacrifices and victories of the many men and women who have fought for civil rights.   While the focus is often on individual leaders and national events, many of our black ancestors worked quietly in the shadows to create a better future for their descendents. These unsung heroes, working together within the framework of benevolent, masonic, and fraternal societies, made lasting contributions to their local communities, setting the groundwork for – and engaging in – the struggle for civil rights.  This article examines the presence, impact, and succession of several such African American societies in Calvert County, Maryland, , which is also the subject of an exhibit opening at the Prince Frederick Library on February 6, 2016.

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The Baltimore Afro-American celebrated the Galilean Fishermen in an article on July 1, 1974, noting a current membership of 500.

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WANTED: Rehabilitation Tax Credit Program Staff

Do you have an eye for detail?

Do you enjoy engaging with people?

Do you value historic buildings?

Melissa at Thomas Point Lighthouse

Former tax credit staff Melissa Archer at Thomas Point Shoal Lighthouse.

If so, you might want to consider applying for a position with MHT!  We are currently hiring two new preservation officers to serve as rehabilitation tax credit program reviewers within MHT’s Office of Preservation Services (OPS).  These new MHT’ers will have unique opportunities to make a real difference in the preservation of buildings large and small across the state.  Check out the job posting here — the deadline to apply is September 22.

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Do You Believe in Ghosts…?

Do You Believe in Ghosts…?

By Susan Langley, State Underwater Archeologist

Do you believe in ghosts? You might if you find yourself at Mallows Bay in Charles County. Standing on its shores, a ghostly fleet of nearly 100 wooden World War I-era steamships appears to rise from the depths as the tide ebbs.  These are friendly ghosts, as they saw no battles and lost no souls.  Nevertheless, at nearly 300 feet long each the ships create an impressive sight, especially at times of extreme low water. Around a full moon, one could almost cross the water on the skeletons of these behemoths.

The "ghost fleet"

The “ghost fleet”

These ships are remnants of the civilian U. S. Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, which was established when America entered WWI on April 2, 1917 to carry men, arms and equipment to the theater of war. They were also intended to carry supplies to European Allies whose shipping had been decimated by German U-boats. Donald Shomette, who literally wrote the book on this ghost fleet, put the project in perspective when he noted that, between 1899 and 1915, the U.S. had launched 540,000 tons of ocean-going shipping and now proposed to build 6,000,000 tons in 18 months. Unfortunately, by October 1918 –a month before the end of the war—only 134 of the 1000 expected vessels had been completed, 263 were less than half completed and none had crossed the Atlantic. Within a year of Germany’s surrender 264 were in operation, though only 195 had crossed the Atlantic once.

World War I shipping poster

WWI shipping poster

With diesel engines and metal hulls now dominant, the ships were obsolete by the time they were completed and the U.S. Shipping Board determined to sell the fleet. A few – sold into private service and eventually abandoned in Curtis Bay – are still visible while traversing the Key Bridge. In September of 1922, a firm purchased 233 ships for $750,000 (approximately the cost to build a single ship) and moored the majority in the Potomac to be taken to Alexandria, VA and broken for scrap.  After the vessels in the Potomac caught fire, broke loose in storms, and created other problems, the company corralled them in Mallows Bay. Small-scale salvage operations took over the bay during the Great Depression, providing 15% of the per capita income for Charles County residents at that time. With the outbreak of WWII, Bethlehem Steel attempted to renew salvaging the vessels and constructed a gated burning basin at the back of Mallows Bay. Ultimately, the company determined it was not cost effective and abandoned the effort.

As the years wore on, the slumbering fleet became part of the maritime landscape, providing roosts and nesting sites for osprey and eagles, a nursery for bass that has made it a prime fishing ground, and shelter for many rare, threatened and endangered species.  The bay and its denizens are best viewed from the water and the shelter provided by the vessels creates prime conditions for kayaks and canoes. Numerous State and local government agencies, environmental organizations and private citizens have long wanted greater recognition of Mallows Bay’s many merits but no single program existed that provided the right fit.

Benzonia in Mallows Bay

Benzonia in Mallows Bay

Last year the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced it would consider community-driven nominations for new National Marine Sanctuaries; the first in more than 20 years. The steering committee, consisting of State and County agencies, environmental organizations, tribal representation, fishing organizations, education and outreach specialists, and citizens-at-large, developed a nomination for Mallows Bay and a portion of the Potomac River in 2014, to coincide with the initiation of global commemorative activities for WWI. The application was submitted by the Governor and included letters of support from nearly 100 groups. In January 2015, the Committee received word that the nomination was accepted into the NOAA Inventory for consideration as a viable candidate for the establishment of a National Marine Sanctuary. If the decision is positive, NOAA will solicit public comment and the steering committee will initiate public scoping meetings. If all goes well, we might cut the ribbon on a National Marine Sanctuary close to the Nation’s capital in time to commemorate the 100th anniversary of America’s entry into World War I.

Additional Reading:

Ghost Fleet of Mallows Bay and Other Tales of the Lost Chesapeake.  Donald G. Shomette.  1996.  Tidewater Publishers: Centerville.

Don is currently working on two new volumes about Mallows Bay so stay tuned for these too.

NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Inventory:

http://www.nominate.noaa.gov/nominations/

Read the nomination and see the letters of support for this endeavor.

The Two Sisters’ Houses: A tangible link to Baltimore’s African American labor history

By Tyler Anthony Smith

The author graduated from Warren Wilson College with a bachelor’s degree in history and studio art in 2010.  He is currently pursuing a master’s degree in Historic Preservation from the University of Maryland College Park and working for Dell Corporation as an Assistant Preservation Technician.  He can be reached at tyleranthonysmith@gmail.com.

The "Two Sisters Houses" at 612-614 S. Wolfe Street in Fell's Point

The “Two Sisters Houses” at 612-614 S. Wolfe Street in Fell’s Point

Have you ever noticed two small, 218-year-old, wood-sided houses on South Wolfe Street in Baltimore’s Fell’s Point?  The Society for the Preservation of Federal Hill and Fell’s Point owns these buildings, often referred to as the “Two Sisters,” which likely date to 1797 – the same year that the U.S. Frigate Constellation was built in a Fell’s Point ship yard. Originally part of a building with four identical units, the remaining ”Two Sisters” each stand just twelve feet wide and fifteen feet deep, with a single room on the first floor and a half story garret above. The buildings housed many working Baltimore residents, including African American ship caulkers Richard Jones, Henry Scott and John Whittington from 1842 to 1854. As ship caulkers they are associated with a unique Baltimore story.

Ship caulking – the process of strengthening and waterproofing ships’ hulls by filling the seams with cotton and oakum fiber, which is then coated with hot pitch – was an essential part of Baltimore’s booming ship building industry. Ship caulking was a trade dominated by free and enslaved African American workers, the most famous of whom was Frederick Douglass, who caulked ships in the 1830s and also lived nearby in Fell’s Point. African American laborers organized the Black Caulkers Association, which held a monopoly on the caulking industry in Baltimore for over a decade. The Caulkers Association hosted annual balls and pleasure cruises for its members and friends.

Baltimore City directories from the 1800s show the names and addresses of many African American caulkers, painting a picture of Fell’s Point as home to many African American sailors, ship carpenters, carters, washerwomen, rope makers, and small vendors as well. Individual names can be followed in the directories over the course of years, making it possible to trace the movements of individuals over time. A significant concentration of ship caulkers around the Two Sisters property appears in the late 1840s. Several caulkers lived on South Wolfe Street and many more lived behind Wolfe Street on Happy Alley (now Durham Street). Significantly, South Wolfe Street is not an alley street; the presence of African American laborers on a wider street could be interpreted as a sign of their financial stability at the time, which would correlate with the comparatively good wages secured by caulkers belonging to the Black Caulkers Association. The directories reveal that in the the 1850s and 1860s the concentration of African American ship caulkers shifted from Happy Alley and Wolfe Street westward to Bethel Street and Dallas Street. This movement correlated with a change in the labor politics.

During the later part of the 1850s the Caulkers Association became victim to gangs of “job busters” hoping to break the caulking monopoly. Newly arrived immigrants – often escaping conditions in Ireland and Germany – competed with African American laborers for wage labor jobs including ship caulking. The Baltimore Sun’s articles covering the conflicts, dubbed “The War Between the Caulkers”, create an engrossing narrative with details fit for Hollywood including political intrigue, a boat chase, and a gang of toughs called the White Tigers. (Shawn Gladden writes in more detail about this issue in his 2007 paper Emergence of Baltimore’s Free Black Caulkers.) While the Black Caulkers Association did lose economic clout in the late 1850s, its legacy continued in the work of Isaac Myers, a Baltimore ship caulker and influential leader in the creation of the Chesapeake Marine Railway and Dry Dock Company, and the Colored National Labor Union.

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Stabilization of 1st floor of 614 S. Wolfe Street

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The “Two Sisters” houses are a physical remnant of this unique Baltimore history. A grant from the African
American Heritage Preservation Program (AAHPP), a partnership of the Maryland Commission on African American History and Culture and the Maryland Historical Trust, has made it possible for the Preservation Society and the Dell Corporation to continue the stabilization of the structures over the past two years, an effort which has included weatherproofing the structure and constructing an ingenious and minimally invasive interior support system. The grant also allowed for archeology done by the Ancient Studies department at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. This AAHPP project has helped to preserve these fragile structures, the first step toward articulating and interpreting the story of Baltimore’s African American laborers.

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Stabilization of 2nd floor of 614 S. Wolfe Street

Sources:

  •  Baltimore City Directories, 1835-1868. University of Maryland College Park: Special Collections Library.
  •  Clayton, Ralph. Slaveholding, Slavery and Free Blacks in Antebellum Baltimore, (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1993).
  •  Dell Corporation, 612-614 Wolfe Street (Property Report, 2006).
  •  Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, (New York, Dover Publications Inc., 1995).
  • The Baltimore Sun, Local Matters, “Highhanded Proceeding” Baltimore, MD June 28, 1859: 1.
  •  Gladden, Shawn. The Emergence of Baltimore’s Free Black Caulkers, Research Seminar topic for Dr. Jane Censer, appeared in Catonsville Courier, Vol. IV, Issue VIII, Aug. 2007.

Links for further reading:

http://baltimoreheritage.org/preservation/laser-scanning-the-two-sisters-historic-wooden-homes-in-fells-point-for-the-preservation-society/

http://explore.baltimoreheritage.org/items/show/139#.VOtaIPnF8k0

http://preservationsociety.com/about-us/two-sisters-houses.html